Mobile Suit Gundam: Omega
The Earth Federation’s heraldry is a golden or white north star, similar to that of NATO, over a horizontally lying crescent, forming an anchor-like symbol.
The Federation is a global government that was formed by a ‘rich mans’ club’ of wealthy nations. In Gundam, no individual nations are mentioned or continue to exist. Places are mentioned by what landmass or region they are in, such as New York City (or New Yark, according to on-screen text) and Odessa are mentioned to be located in North America and Central Asia, not the United States or Ukraine. While Japan, Australia, and Ireland are mentioned, these names refer to the landmasses and not the former countries. The only exception to this is the language and nationality of characters, which can be interpreted to be based on their predecessors’ former homeland before emigrating to the space colonies.
The Federation military headquarters was a secret, underground complex located at Jaburo, deep in the Amazon jungle. It was located underground for protection against Zeon attacks.
The Federation maintained a just for show military academy at Nijmegen.
Earth’s surface is divided into eleven primary administrative regions, with smaller territoriy regions throughout the world. It is not revealed whether these regions operate with some degree of autonomy or not.
Composed of the former nations of Canada, United States, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America, ending at the Panama Canal.
In the Gundam universe the region is similar to the political map in the Cold War era.
In the Gundam universe the region is similar to the Warsaw Pact political map during the Cold War, including Western Russia, ending at the Ural Mountains and along the Ural River.
This region includes most of what was the Soviet Union, starting at the Ural Mountains, and excludes South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Northeast Asia
The region also includes Southeast Asia
The Earth Federation was formed in the pre-Universal Century (i.e. the late 21st Century), when overpopulation began causing famines, outbreaks of disease, and wars over living space, food, and resources.
In order to relieve Earth of the burden and allow it to heal, the Earth Federation announced the Space Colonization Plan. The Earth Federation began the construction of orbital habitats, based on the designs and research of Gerard K. O’Neill, and located in the Earth-Lunar Lagrangian Points. The colonies, called Bunches (possibly due to the ballistic pairing of the colony cylinders) were then organized into administrative sectors called Sides. While most of the human population was forced to relocate to the colonies as part of the Space Colonization Plan, the wealthy and influential members were able to remain on Earth. This gave rise to the image of the Earth Federation as “Earth-Born Elite”, living comfortably on Earth while the ordinary populace, for the most part, has been forced to live in space.
In order to maintain and satisfy energy concerns, the Earth Federation launches Solar Power Station Satellites, which broadcast energy to power stations on the ground. In addition, the Federation also launched the Jupiter Energy Fleet, which collect helium-3, hydrogen and methane from the upper atmosphere of the gas giant. In U.C. 001, the Federation elected it’s first prime-minister, Ricardo Marcenas. Marcenas was prepared to unveil the Universal Century Charter,. However, before he could do so, his resident colony, Laplace, was destroyed by a terrorist group. Arguably, the sabotage was the best thing that could’ve happened for the Federation, allowing to maintain all its authority under the pretense of preventing terror.
One Year War
The One Year War was a year-long conflict between the Earth Federation and the Principality of Zeon, who declared independence and attacked the Earth without warning. The war was ultimately won by the Earth Federation, who disbanded the Zeon army. However, for many years on, several incidents were caused by Zeon remaining forces or loyalists.